This famous painting is part of a new exhibition called “Girl with a Pearl Earring: Dutch Paintings from the Mauritshuis,” which features 35 important works by Dutch Golden Age masters—including Vermeer, Rembrandt, Fans Hals, and Jan Steen. It will be traveling from the Hague to the U.S. next year (it goes to the de Young Museum of San Francisco January 26–June 2, 2013; the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, June 22–September 29; and th Frick Collection in New York from October 22, 2013–January 12, 2014).
There are only 34 extant paintings that modern scholars overwhelmingly agree should be attributed to Johannes Vermeer of Delft. One very clever individual at one time had a great success bamboozling the art world into believing there were more. His fascinating story is told in The Man Who Made Vermeers: Unvarnishing the Legend of Master Forger Han van Meegeren. Of those 34 authenticated works, one has gone missing since it was stolen from the Isabella Stewart Gardiner museum in 1990: The Concert.
Another painting is rarely seen because it belongs to Queen Elizabeth. That's The Music Lesson, which hangs in The Royal Collection at Buckingham Palace (it was acquired by King George III).
Another famous Vermeer has recently undergone a major restoration, and the results are wondrous, especially the blues. That's Woman in Blue Reading a Letter from the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, seen below in before and after photos.
If you'd like to delve into the art and world of Vermeer in depth, I recommend bookmarking this interactive online catalog. For viewing in person, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Frick, and the National Gallery of Art all have multiple Vermeers on permanent exhibition. Below: Mistress and Maid, from the Frick Collection in New York City.